- Annulus fibrosis: The strong, fibrous outer ring that surrounds and supports the nucleus (nucleus pulposus) of an intervertebral disc.
- Anterior Cervical Discectomy with Fusion (ACDF): A surgical procedure that involves approaching the cervical spine through an incision in the front of the neck, removing all or part of a diseased and/or damaged intervertebral disc to relieve pressure on the spinal cord and/or spinal nerves and then inserting graft material and instrumentation to promote fusion, or the creation of a bond, between two adjacent vertebrae.Arthroplasty: A surgical procedure performed to realign and/or reconstruct a dysfunctional joint, with the goal of relieving pain and restoring range of motion.
- Axial: Refers to the plane that divides the upper and lower sections of the body.
- Ball and Socket: Artificial disc configuration in which a round "ball" fits within a corresponding cavity, or "socket." The components only allow for rotation from a fixed, single point. A device with ball and socket design does not allow for anterior/posterior (A/P) translation, a fundamental motion of the cervical spine. This design, therefore, is not capable of replicating the physiologic motion of the cervical spine.
- Ball and Trough: Artificial disc configuration in which a round "ball" located on the superior (upper) component of the device sits within an elongated cavity, or "trough," located on the inferior (lower) component. The PRESTIGE® Cervical Disc with its ball and trough articulation was designed to allow for anterior/posterior (A/P) translation.
- Bone Graft: A critical component of spinal fusion, a bone graft may be taken from the patient's own body (autograft), from a donor (allograft), or may be a bone graft substitute, such as bone morphogenetic protein (BMP, rhBMP-2). The function of bone graft material is to act as a binding medium and also help maintain normal disc height. As the body heals, the vertebral bone and bone graft eventually grow together to join ("fuse") the vertebrae and stabilize the spine. (See spinal fusion)
- Cervical Artificial Disc: A prosthetic device that is inserted between two adjacent vertebrae to replace a natural spinal disc that has been removed.
- Cervical Artificial Disc Replacement: A type of joint replacement procedure (see arthroplasty) that involves inserting an artificial disc into the intervertebral space after a disc has been removed.
- Cervical Disc Disease: The collective name for a condition that occurs when spinal discs in the cervical spine become dried out, compressed or otherwise damaged due to age, genetics and/or everyday wear-and-tear. If the jelly-like inner portion of the disc pushes out through a tear, or herniation, in the disc's fibrous outer layer and compresses the spinal cord and/or spinal nerves, or if bony outgrowths called osteophytes form, symptoms may include pain, numbness and/or muscle weakness.
- Cervical Spine: Made up of the first seven vertebrae in the spine (C1-C7), the cervical spine starts just below the skull and ends at the top of the thoracic spine. The cervical spine has a backward "C" shape (lordotic curve) and is more mobile than the thoracic or lumbar regions of the spine.
- Clinical Trial: A clinical trial is a research study designed to answer specific questions about new therapies or new ways of using known treatments. Also called medical or research studies, clinical trials are also conducted to determine whether a therapy is both safe and effective.
- Conservative Care: Non-surgical treatment measures such as exercise, physical therapy, heat and cold therapy, massage and chiropractic.
- Coronal: Refers to the plane that divides the front and back sections of the body.
- Discectomy: The surgical removal of all or part of an intervertebral disc.
- Dura mater: The protective membrane that covers the spinal cord. It forms a watertight sack around the spinal cord and nerves, and the spinal cord is surrounded by spinal fluid inside this sack.
- Facet Joint: Facet joints connect each vertebra with the vertebra directly above and below it and are designed to allow the vertebral bodies to rotate with respect to each other.
- Functional Spinal (Vertebral) Unit: Includes the vertebra, disc and attached ligaments; essentially, the spinal motion segment minus the muscles.
- Lamina(e): The portion of the vertebral arch that forms the roof of the spinal canal.
- Neural Foramen: The openings through which the nerve roots exit the spine and travel to the rest of the body.
- Nuclear Prosthesis: An artificial disc designed to replace a damaged nucleus pulposus. There currently are no nuclear prostheses approved by the FDA for the cervical spine.
- Nucleus Pulposus The soft, gel-like inner core of an intervertebral disc.
Osteophyte: A bony outgrowth on the edge of a vertebra, also known as a bone spur.
- Pathologic: Pertaining to or caused by disease or an abnormal condition.
- Pathology: The scientific study of the nature of disease and its causes, processes, development and consequences.
- Pedicle: The bony process that projects backward from the body of a vertebra and connects with the lamina on either side.
- Physiologic: In accordance with or characteristic of the normal functioning of the body.
- PRESTIGE® Cervical Disc : An artificial disc (spinal prosthesis) designed to maintain motion at a treated vertebral segment. It is designed to replicate flexion, extension, side bending and rotation of a natural disc. The PRESTIGE® Cervical Disc is the first artificial disc approved by the FDA for use in the cervical spine, and the first of a family of artificial spinal discs under development by Medtronic.
- Prosthesis: A man-made device that replaces a natural part of the body. (See cervical artificial disc.)
- Sagittal: Refers to the plane that divides the right and left sections of the body.
- Spinal Cord: The spinal cord extends from the base of the brain to the area between the first and second lumbar (lower back) vertebrae, and then diverges into individual nerves that extend into the lower body and legs.
- Spinal (Intervertebral) Disc: The discs located between the vertebrae that function as shock absorbers and as joints, and are designed to absorb the stresses carried by the spine while allowing the vertebral bodies to move with respect to each other.
- Spinal Fusion: Spinal fusion is a surgical technique in which one or more of the vertebrae of the spine are joined together (fused), through the use of bone graft material and instrumentation such as rods, plates and screws, to ideally stabilize the treated vertebral level(s) and provide symptom relief.
- Spinous Process: The bony process that protrudes from each vertebra. These are the "bumps" of the spine that are visible down the back.
- Total Disc Prosthesis: An artificial disc designed to replace and restore the function of an entire natural intervertebral disc.
The individual bones that make up the vertebral column, or spine. Of the 33 vertebrae typically found in the human spine, 24 are separated by intervertebral discs and divided into groups based on their location, including cervical (the seven vertebrae of the neck — see cervical spine), thoracic (the 12 vertebrae of the upper and middle back) and lumbar (the five vertebrae of the lower back). The remaining vertebrae include the five that are fused to form the sacrum and the four that form the coccyx, or tailbone.
Each vertebra consists of an anterior (front) segment called the vertebral body and a posterior segment called the vertebral (neural) arch, which encloses the vertebral (neural) foramen. The vertebral arch is formed by a pair of pedicles and a pair of laminae and supports seven processes: four articular, two transverse and one spinous. Learn more about the elements of the spine.
Potential risks associated with the PRESTIGE® Cervical Disc include, but are not limited to, early or late loosening of the components, component sizing issues, and anatomical or technical difficulties. Patients may experience tissue reaction; formation of bone that may reduce spinal motion or result in a fusion, either at the treated level or adjacent levels; and the development of new radiculopathy, myelopathy, or pain. For more information, please click here for links to important safety information or the patient information brochure which contains the complete list of indications, warnings, precautions, adverse events, clinical results, and other important medical information.
It is important that you discuss the potential risks, complications and benefits of the PRESTIGE® Cervical Disc with your doctor prior to receiving treatment, and that you rely on your doctor's judgment. Only your doctor can determine whether you are a suitable candidate for this treatment.